Biotechnology and the world of colors have all the time been intertwined. Nature’s hues and tints are captured of their man-made or natural state in quite a lot of market merchandise. The flower markets of pure blood-red roses and gene-designed blue roses just lately launched in Japan are apt examples.
To-date however the awe-inspiring snip and tuck methods of genetic engineering, the legendary ‘Black Tulip’ of French writer Alexander Dumas nonetheless stays the ‘Holy Grail of the Tulip world’. A number of varieties from ‘Tulip Queen of Evening’ (1944) to T.’Black Hero’ (1984) represent ‘the class of the ‘blackest of the formally ‘purple’ tulips’.
Nature’s wealth of colors have impressed movie star painters and poets —French-born Hillarie Belloc describes in verse the morphology of The Microbe with its ‘seven tufted tails with numerous pink and purple spots.’; and schoolchildren to discover the microbial world by the ‘looking-glass’ of Winogradsky’s column with its purple and inexperienced bands —consortia of the inexperienced and purple photosynthetic micro organism. Blue-green cyanobacteria contribute to the financial system of Nature’s necessary biogeochemical Cycles-the nitrogen cycle.
The Pink Sea might derive its color and identify from the red-cyanobacterium — Trichodesmium erythraeum, however the destruction of quite a few fish is as a result of Pink Tide inhabitants of the plant-like red-brown dinoflagellates. Pigments assist classify the brown, yellow, crimson and inexperienced algae; and protozoa and yeasts similar to Euglena and Pichia. Nature’s color artistry happens all through the biospectrum incorporating interalia inexperienced and purple micro organism, antibiotic-producing species of Streptomyces and Nocardia, fungi that shade cheeses, blue-green anoles, rainbow papaya and trout, and inexperienced fluorescent proteins answerable for the coloration of various corals and anemones. Inexperienced, yellow, orange-red and purple-blue chromoproteins are the raison d’etre of fabled reef colors various within the spectrum of daylight circumstances.
Verily, Nature’s palette of pigments and paints underscores the necessity of bioresources centres to seize, classify and preserve the planet’s biotreasury lest extinction consequence from benign neglect and industrial exploitation.
‘Biomimicry…… is a brand new science that research nature’s greatest concepts after which imitates these designs and processes to resolve human issues. ……Organisms use two strategies to create color with out paint: inside pigments and the structural color that makes tropical butterflies, peacocks, and hummingbirds so attractive. A peacock is a totally brown fowl. Its “colors” consequence from gentle scattering off frequently spaced melanin rods, and interference results by skinny layers of keratin (the identical stuff as your fingernails).’
New navy clothes makes use of fluorescent colors, biosensors and bioinformatics on the nano-level to imitate pure phenomena of biomimicry and chameleonic colors. Geofabrics colored for applicable use contribute to panorama and concrete administration — conservation of golf programs and park-lawns, and safeguarding artistic and aesthetic intuition of humankind is embedded in of soil embankments and floral gardens.
The clear and inexperienced applied sciences. The primary biodegradable inexperienced bank card was issued in 1997. ‘Coral proteins placed on the crimson gentle’ in marine waters, and colored glow fish operate as indicators of air pollution in aquatic reservoirs. Colors utilized in biotextile grafts make enticing and acceptable use of bioceramic supplies in dentistry, drugs orthopaedics, tissue engineering and veterinary science.
Genetic analysis has contributed to understanding human eye and pores and skin color. The genesis of coat colors of cats, canines, rabbits, ponies, and so on. has been deciphered. The pinnacle color of birds too. Coat color alleles are used to provide sublines of mice for research regarding ageing, most cancers, cardiovascular, neurobiological and reproductive biology. The Large Blue mouse is used to analysis most cancers and neurodegenerative illness. Yellow mice assist localize gene mutations on particular chromosomes.Customized-made mice — the albino, cream, brown and black fashions are analysis keys learning tumour biology. Certainly, ‘the power to comply with coat colors’ requires ‘no difficult instruments similar to molecular genotyping’ in ‘the breeding and upkeep of mutant strains.’
Colors encourage, encourage and uplift humankind. Clinics and psychological amenities use soothing colors to help convalescents. Colors exist in sports activities too. Winners specific a way of nationwide achievement and delight in draping themselves of their nationwide flags. In EURO 2004 – soccer and biopsychology met. To reinforce native psychobiological benefit and patriotism the coach of the house staff requested followers ‘to put on one thing crimson or inexperienced’ their nationwide colors ‘toface the orange shirts’ of their opponents’ in a qualifying match.
Company biotech is engaged in ‘chasing the rainbow.’ Former Vice-President Al Gore envisioned the ‘pot of gold on the finish of the biotechnology rainbow.’ Entrepreneurs, nonetheless, focus their quest ‘someplace over the genetic rainbow’. UN policy-makers use colour-codes in combating, and designing options to issues of starvation and poverty. The UN Financial Fee for Africa in 2002 described ‘Realizing the Promise of Inexperienced Biotechnology for the Poor’ and ‘Tackling the Ailments of Poverty by Pink Biotechnology’ —technologies that contain utilizing genetically-engineered mosquitoes with the potential to eradicate malaria; and gene modified meals —golden rice and orange bananas, enriched with vitamin A to counteract the onset of blindness.
‘Moral challenges of inexperienced biotechnology for creating nations’ come up, and, ‘whether or not transgenic crops ought to carry distinguishing markers, similar to distinguishing colors, in order that they are often recognized and never intermixed with different crops of the identical species’ is underneath assessment to be used in regulatory work. In house biology analysis, transgenic crops utilizing blue and inexperienced colors are being developed as biosensors to point presence of sure sorts of stress.
Nutritionists speak of a rainbow weight loss plan wealthy in micronutrients and nutritional vitamins that make meals naturally enticing and appetizing for a ‘good really feel’standing. Conventional drugs recommends consuming naturally colored meals possessing pure phytonutrients of their pores and skin components. A considered selection of crimson (meat), inexperienced (salads), yellow (cereals and fruits) and violet (greens) meals contributes to the sustenance of long-term good well being in combating synthetic diabetes and weight problems. Blue cheese and black truffles are delicacies with out added meals colorants; and supermarkets might quickly provide carrots in crimson and purple with the orange selection. ‘Analysis into totally different colored carrots is just not about making a vogue assertion however about potential well being enhancements’.
In agro-trade, traffic-colours of amber and inexperienced outline insurance policies that distort commerce of sure commodities. Amber field insurance policies signify ‘warning’ regarding ‘worth helps, advertising and marketing loans and subsidies, and livestock portions’. Inexperienced field insurance policies cowl ‘analysis, pest and illness management, and crop insurance coverage and conservation applications’. Blue field insurance policies –a momentary WTO class that accommodates transatlantic negotiations, are ‘redefined amber field insurance policies regarding manufacturing limiting applications’.
Biotechnologies described in colors highlight salient elements of analysis for financial growth. The Cordia-EuropaBio Conference 2003 in Vienna in ‘Blue Biotechnology – Exploitation of Marine Sources’ centered on the ‘Ocean of Alternatives’ for sustaining growth by rational use of marine bioresources. Europe’s catalytic position in ‘Inexperienced Biotechnology in Africa’ resides in collaborative biotech schooling, analysis, growth, and market ventures.
In January 2004, a European Fee assembly on the Biosciences ‘Know-how Facility’, College of York, UK, acknowledged that any ‘biotechnology platform, creating bio-based merchandise must be a concerted marriage of the ‘White’ along with the ‘Inexperienced’ and ‘Blue’ biotechnology sectors’. Unlocking of bottlenecks might be achieved by programmes using ‘the synergies between inexperienced, white and blue biotechnologies.’
In 2005, the twelfth European Biotechnology Congress will use 4 biotech motors: white (industrial); crimson (pharmaceutical), inexperienced (meals and feed) and blue (setting) in ‘Bringing Genomes to Life’ in Denmark.
Using color codes is seemingly the lingua franca of science coverage in Germany. Sixty % of the 253 biotechnological corporations with some 43,000 staff in a survey by Hessen’s Ministry of Financial system had been specializing in crimson biotechnology (analysis and remedy of ailments); 4% had been specializing in inexperienced biotechnology (agriculture, meals manufacturing); and, 1% was in gray biotechnology (pure industrial processes with an environmental nuance). In Baden-Württemberg, over half of the biotech firms excel in crimson biotechnology with smaller numbers within the gray and inexperienced sectors. German market research emphasize the white and crimson biotechnologies. Pink biotechnology accounts for some 86% of all biotech firms. Inexperienced biotechnology with 27% is adopted by gray biotechnology with 10%.
Within the USA, a 5 colour-coded safety system from inexperienced (low) by blue (guarded), yellow (elevated), and orange (excessive) to crimson (extreme) has been decreed. Adoption of protecting and self-defense responses includes all ranges of vigilance and preparedness to fight and neutralize the threats of terrorism and people of bioterrorism that goal at destruction of that nation’s safety and its peoples. Color alert programs for air air pollution (USA) and inclement climate (Mozambique) are indicators of time accessible for precautionary motion by folks vulnerable to asthmatic and respiratory ailments in addition to in offsetting lack of life and bioeconomic assets.
In satire, a ‘5 (color) stage Mad Cow alert’ exists. The alert ranges vary from consuming cow elements (inexperienced) by restricted beef consumption (blue) and train of deliberate protecting measures (yellow) to symptomatic mooing and chewing of the cud (orange) to a change to fermented meals – tofu (crimson).
Utilizing colors to explain biotechnology constitutes a brand new mechanism in:
– attracting faculty youngsters to the microbial world in several environments;
– educating biotechnology in graduate and medical colleges; and
– offering sound bytes to be used by non-technical policy-makers selling the biotech powerhouse for sustainable growth.
Dr. R. Colwell, Director, US Nationwide Basis at a US-EC Biotech assembly in 2003 mentioned: “If we may weave a Flag of Biotechnology, some say, it might function three colors: crimson for medical purposes, inexperienced for agricultural and white for industrial. The truth is this flag might accrue much more colors over time as environmental and marine biotech and different purposes add their stripes’.
In that context, the color index beneath could also be a helpful information with additional additions as biotechnology and colors intertwine over time in selling public notion and understanding of biotech purposes for the reason for science, growth, and the present and publish human way forward for humankind.
Coloration Kind Space of Biotech Actions
Pink – Well being, Medical, Diagnostics
Yellow – Meals Biotechnology, Diet Science
Blue – Aquaculture, Coastal and Marine Biotech
Inexperienced – Agricultural, Environmental Biotechnology – Biofuels, Biofertilizers, Bioremediation, Geomicrobiology
Brown – Arid Zone and Desert Biotechnology
Darkish – Bioterrorism, Biowarfare, Biocrimes, Anticrop warfare
Purple – Patents, Publications, Innovations, IPRs
White – Gene-based Bioindustries
Gold – Bioinformatics, Nanobiotechnology
Gray – Classical Fermentation and Bioprocess Know-how